Sunday, July 27, 2008

Siamese fighting fish

Betta (Siamese fighting fish)
A blue veiltail male.
A blue veiltail male.
Female
Female
Scientific classificatio

The Betta fish (Betta splendens), commonly called a "siamese fighting fish", is one of the most popular species of freshwater aquarium fish. It is native to the Mekong river basin in Southeast Asia and called pla-kad or pla-kat ("Biting Fish") in its native Thailand.

The name Betta (or betta) is pronounced /ˈbɛtə/.[1] That is, the first part is the same as the English word bet. By confusion with the name of the Greek letter beta, the name is often pronounced /ˈbeɪtə/ in American English, and may be misspelled with one t. The name of the genus is unrelated to that of the Greek letter, being derived from ikan bettah, in a local language in Thailand.[2]

B. splendens usually grow to an overall length of about 6.0 cm (~ 2.3 in), though some varieties reach 8.0 cm (3.5 in.) in length. In recent years breeders have been able to create "Giant Bettas" that exceed 8.0 cm (3.5 in.) due to the manipulation of a mutant gene. Although bettas are known for their brilliant colors and large, flowing fins, the natural coloration of B. splendens is a dull green and brown, and the fins of wild specimens are relatively short. However, brilliantly colored and longer finned varieties, such as veiltail, delta, superdelta, and halfmoon have been developed through selective breeding.

The betta is a member of the Gourami family (family Osphronemidae) of order Perciformes, but was formerly classified among the Anabantidae. Although there are nearly 50 other types of bettas, B. splendens is the most popular species among aquarium hobbyists, particularly in the United States.

Rreathing

Like anabantids and all members of the genus Betta, Siamese fighting fish have a labyrinth organ in their heads that allows them to take oxygen directly from the atmosphere in addition to the oxygen taken from water via their gills. Bettas that cannot reach the surface may drown.

Diet

Bettas have upturned mouths and are primarily carnivorous surface feeders. In the wild, bettas feed on zooplankton and the larvae of mosquitoes and other insects, such as flies, crickets, or grasshoppers.[citation needed] Bettas which feed on wide range of foods live longer, have richer colors, and heal fin damage more quickly. Typically, Betta pellets are a combination of mashed shrimp meal, fish meal, brine shrimp, bloodworms, and vitamins. Bettas also will eat live or frozen bloodworms, brine shrimp or daphnia. For variety and fiber, bettas are fed finely-chopped, high-protein vegetables, such as soybeans, green beans, broccoli, corn, and carrots. Some bettas subsist on dried flaked food suitable for tropical fish, because although this feed reduces their coloring, the bettas are able to digest this better than pellets. However, just feeding bettas vegetables alone is not a good idea since they are carnivorous and do best with meat products. Bettas can get constipated when their diet lacks variety. If their stomach looks swollen, feed them food with fiber.

Reproduction and nests

Females have an ovipositor, a small, white 'pearl' at the anus, most visible from below the fish. After mating, females lay egg clutches of approximately 100-500 eggs, rarely over 600 eggs.[citation needed] The female is generally removed from the breeding tank immediately after spawning, as they are known to eat their own fry.

Betta males build bubble nests of various sizes and thicknesses at the surface of the water. During and after spawning, the male uses his mouth to retrieve sinking eggs and deposit them in the bubble nest. After approximately two days the eggs hatch, and after three more they become free-swimming fry; at this point the male is generally removed from the breeding tank to prevent cannibalism and stress to the young. Betta fry are fed infusoria for the first several days, followed by newly hatched brine shrimp or similarly sized food.[3]


B. splendens can be hybridized with B. imbellis, and B. smaragdina.

Colors

A so-called "orange dalmatian" male.
A so-called "orange dalmatian" male.

Bettas have been affectionately nicknamed "The Jewel of the Orient" due to the wide range of colors which are produced through selective breeding.

Wild bettas only exhibit strong colors when agitated.[citation needed] However, breeders have been able to make this coloration permanent, and a wide variety of hues breed true. Bettas come in a variety of colors, such as red, blue, turquoise, orange, yellow, white, and green. Most are slightly iridescent, and can appear to change color with different lighting or viewing angle. Breeders have also developed different color patterns such as marble and butterfly, as well as metallic shades such as copper, gold, and opaque.[citation needed]

Breeders around the world continue to develop new varieties. Often, the male species are sold preferentially in stores because of their beauty, compared to the females. Recently, breeders have developed in females the same range of colors previously only bred in males. However, females never develop finnage as showy as males of the same type and are almost always more subdued in colouration.

The gene that makes black bettas is the same one that creates cancer. Therefore, black bettas almost always die earlier than other bettas.

Tail shapes

A metallic, double-tail male Betta
A metallic, double-tail male Betta

Breeders have developed several different tail shapes:

  • Veiltail (non-symmetrical tail, only two rays)
  • Crowntail (highly frilled, extended spiny rays)
  • Combtail (less extended version of the crown tail)
  • Half-moon (large tail fin that forms a 180-degree, or larger, half circle)
  • Short-finned fighting style (sometimes called "plakat")
  • Double-tail (the tail fin is split into two lobes and the dorsal fin is significantly elongated)
  • Delta tail (tail span is less than half-moon with sharp edges)
  • Fantail (a rounded delta tail)

Behavior

A male "attacking" and flaring at his reflection in a mirror.
A male "attacking" and flaring at his reflection in a mirror.

Male and female Bettas flare or "puff out" their gill covers (opercula) in order to appear more impressive, either to intimidate other rivals or as an act of courtship. Females and males will display horizontal bars (unless they are too light a colour for this to show) if stressed or frightened. Females often flare their gills at other females, especially when setting up a pecking order. Flirting fish behave similarly, with vertical instead of horizontal stripes indicating a willingness and readiness to breed. Bettas sometimes require a place to hide, even in the absence of threats. Bettas may set up a territory centered on a plant or rocky alcove, sometimes becoming highly possessive of it and aggressive toward trespassing rivals.

On average, males are more aggressive, though individual females, especially crowntails, demonstrate a wide range in level of aggression. The aggression of bettas has been studied by ethologists and comparative psychologists[4]. Bettas will even respond aggressively to their own reflections in a mirror; use of a mirror avoids the risk of physical damage inherent in actual conflict.[citation needed]

Tankmates

Because of the aggressive nature of the Betta splendens species, tank-mates must be carefully chosen:

Two or more Males: Contrary to popular belief, male betta splendens do not fight to the death in the wild; when one fish has won the fight, the loser retreats to safety.[citation needed] In an aquarium, however, there is no retreat, so the victor fish continues attacking the loser, often resulting in the loser's death, therefore, hobbyists rarely house two male B. splendens in the same tank unless they are (a) separated by a partition, or (b) they are from the same batch of eggs and are immature.

A Male and a Female: In the wild, females stay clear of males, except during mating. When cohabiting in tanks, males might kill females, and are generally kept apart unless (a) they are juvenile siblings, (b) they are breeding, (c) there is a partition, or (d) the tank is large enough for the female to escape attack. Often, before breeding, breeders use a partitioned container to allow female display without risking harm by the male.

Several female bettas in a community tank with mollies and rainbowfish.
Several female bettas in a community tank with mollies and rainbowfish.

Two or more Females: Bettas are not schooling fish, but in a large tank with many hiding spaces, female bettas can cohabit. When two females share a tank, one usually bullies the other; however, four or more females will establish a hierarchy allowing peaceful co-existence. Nevertheless, females living in community must be monitored for aggressive females.

Compatible fish of other species: Hobbyists put betta splendens in tanks with other species after careful research and preparation. Common tankmates include platies (moons), corydoras catfish, and loaches. Females can share a tank with danios, tetras, barbs, and gouramis. Shrimp are popular tank-mates because, provided with sufficient natural plant cover, they keep the tank clean without causing stress to the bettas.[citation needed]

The success of a betta in a community aquarium, however, is largely dependent on the particular betta's level of aggressiveness. Whereas some bettas make wonderful community fish, particularly belligerent or skittish bettas are best housed alone.

Incompatible fish of other species:

  • Very small fish (smaller than one inch) may be eaten.
  • Fish with long, flowing fins may trigger aggression.
  • Slow-swimming fish, e.g. fancy guppies, will be unable to escape bullying.
  • Mollies tend to bite the fins off and have been known to kill bettas.
  • Schooling fish, especially barbs and certain tetras, will nip at a betta's fins.
  • Aggressive fish, such as piranhas, and bluegills, will bully or (if large enough) eat bettas.
  • Fish belonging to the same biological family as the betta, such as Paradise Fish and gouramis, may attack or be attacked due to their relatively similar appearance and cross species aggression.
  • Goldfish are unsuitable tank-mates because of their great appetites, preference for cold water, and high excretion-rate. Like many tropical fish, Betta splendens might harass and kill small, slow fancy goldfish; in return, goldfish have been known to bite a Betta's tail. Goldfish also can be suitable with bettas. It depends on the level of agression of the betta.

Living conditions

Bettas are often kept in extremely small containers, a practice which many aquarists consider inhumane. This practice is due in part to practical considerations; few pet stores have the space or finances to display a large selection of male bettas except in small containers. However, many inexperienced fishkeepers continue to house bettas in small containers after purchase. A popular misconception is that wild bettas live in very small puddles, and thus are "happier" when kept in cramped conditions. In reality, like any other fish, bettas are healthier, more active and will often grow larger when they are kept in a roomy tank. Aquarists typically recommend that there be at least 1 gallon (3.75L) of water for each cubic inch (16.5cm³) of fish (this is a general estimate; some species may require additional space).

The betta deserves its reputation as a hardy, low-maintenance breed and a good choice for beginning aquarists. However, betta still require appropriate conditions to survive and thrive. The betta is a tropical fish and does best when kept in a tank with a heater (use of heaters is strongly discouraged in tanks under 5 gallons (20L) in size). The ideal temperature for a betta is 78-80°F. Temperatures lower than 76°F (25°C) render the fish lethargic and illness-prone. Betta are capable of jumping from tanks and thus must be kept in a tank with a cover; this cover must not be air-tight, however, as the betta needs to be able to breathe from the surface (especially in a tank which lacks aeration). Also it is recommended by breeders and pet stores alike is that if you are unaware of your water's pH, to use spring water instead. This can be found at virtually any store, or a local spring would be just fine. This helps prevent your betta from getting sick or dying from unbalanced water conditions.

Many beginner's mistakes are perpetuated by the betta's hardiness. Along with believing that cramped spaces are good for bettas, new owners often believe bettas can live for extended periods in foul water, or that a betta doesn't require water changes. Bettas in 1 gallon tanks require 2-3 water changes a week. Bettas in 2 or 3 gallon tanks can make it with weekly water changes and maintain good health for many years. Although small tanks are often sold with filters, tanks with less than 5 gallons do not cycle and bettas still require regular water changes to prevent amonia buildup.

Bettas enjoy plastic plants and small ornaments they can rest on. Many bettas also like ornaments with small openings they can swim in and out of. However, especially with veiltails, plants and ornaments need to be free of sharp edges to prevent the betta from tearing its fins. Because of frequent water changes, most betta owners do not use aquarium gravel in their tanks and bowls. Glass pebbles and marbles designed for aquariums are often popular substitutes.

Friday, July 25, 2008

Betta Breeding

Bettas are bubble-nest breeders and are frequently bred in aquarium. If you wish to try breeding Betta you will have to start by obtaining a pair. The best method is usually to get at least two female Betta and two males. It is important that you select healthy looking fish with good external features. By preparing at least four Bettas and getting them into breeding condition you will have replacements if a couple turns out to be incompatible, or if any Betta turn our to be unhealthy or incapable of breeding. To get your Bettas into breeding condition should keep them in a suitable environment and follow all the general guidelines for keeping Bettas, such as ideal water temperatures, suitable pH levels etcetera. Feed the potential parents live or frozen meaty foods twice a day or more.

Start off by keeping all four individual Bettas isolated, but still able of noticing each other during 3-4 days. You can also use another method where you isolate the fish completely from other Bettas during four days. Somehow isolation seems to trigger spawning in Bettas, but we still do not know why.

A 2.5-10 gallon aquarium is large enough to function as a breeding aquarium for Bettas, as long as the water can be 5 inches deep. Decorate the aquarium with floating aquatic plants, and also insert a few clay pots as hiding places. The water temperature should be kept constant between 80 and 82 degrees F. A cover is usually necessary to keep the water and air at a constant temperature, and if the room is subjected to draft a cover is absolutely necessary since any draft can cause water movements that will disturb the Gourami bubble-nest.

male betta picture
A blue male Betta. Copyright www.jjphoto.dk
Most Betta breeders choose to add the male Betta to the breeding aquarium a few hours before the female Betta is introduced. This way, the male will get some time to explore the breeding aquarium and establish his territory. When you have placed the female Betta in the breeding aquarium you will usually have to wait no more than a few hours before you can watch the male Betta build a beautiful bubble-nest. The female Betta will display dark vertical bars on her body, and this is a sign that shows that she is ready to spawn. Even if the Betta pair is highly compatible and ready to spawn, they will fight each other in the breeding aquarium. The two will even try to tear up each others fins, and this might look scary but actually makes sense from an evolutionary perspective. By fighting each other, both sexes prove that they are strong individuals that will pass on good DNA to the new generation. A Betta does not want to waste time and energy by breeding with an unhealthy fish with genetic defects.

If your Betta pair still haven’t spawn within tree days after the female Betta was placed in the breeding aquarium, the pair is not compatible and will not breed. Take away the female Betta and insert your other female Betta to the breeding aquarium. If the male Betta never got started on his bubble-nest building, it is probably something wrong with him and you should remove him from the breeding aquarium instead and insert the other male. You can also remove both fishes and give the other pair a try.



female betta picture
A female Betta. Copyright www.jjphoto.dk
Hopefully, one of the possible combinations will prove successful, and eggs will be deposited, fertilized and placed in the bubble-nest. As soon as this has happened, you should remove the female Betta from the breeding aquarium. She will most likely be suffering from wounds from the courting period, and should therefore be placed in a medicated container. The male should be left to care for the offspring, and not be removed until the fry is free swimming. It is a good idea to place him in a medicated container as well. Newly hatched Betta fry will get enough nutrition from their yolk sacs and should not be fed during the first day. When the yolk sacs have been consumed, instinct will draw the fry towards moving objects in the aquarium. In the wild, Betta fry eat micro organism and your Betta fry should therefore ideally be fed vinegar eels or similar. Vinegar eels are microscopic nematodes and small enough for young Betta fry to consume. When the Betta fry are a few days old, you can start feeding them newly hatched brine shrimp. Small daphnia, grindle worms and other types of micro-worms are also suitable.

Betta Anatomy

The Betta genus is a part of the Gourami family (Osphronemidae). Earlier, the Betta genus was considered a part of the Anabantidae family. The reason behind this is the fact that all Betta species have labyrinth organs, just like the Anabantidae species. The labyrinth organs make it possible for Betta and Anabantidae species to absorb oxygen directly from the air. It is an adaptation to a life in low oxygen waters. Some irresponsible fish stores sell Betta fish in vases and tiny bawls without any form of aeration, and claim that the Betta will do well in such a tiny space since the fish can breathe oxygen from the air. It is true that many Betta fishes will survive in such conditions, but there is a huge difference between merely surviving and really doing well. One of the most commonly kept Betta species, the Betta splendens, can grow larger than 7 cm (3 inches) and will require at least 3 gallons of water to do well. Other Betta species will have other requirements, depending on size and temperament.


The Spotted betta, Betta picta, is the type species for the genus Betta, but as mentioned above the most commonly kept and well known Betta is another species – the Betta splendens. When the term Betta is used in everyday language it often refers not to the genus but to this particular species. Betta splendens is also called Siamese fighting fish and the males are highly territorial and will fight each other viciously if placed in the same aquarium. Betta splendens have been extensively bred and can today be obtained in numerous variations. There exist at least 13 different colourations and an abundance of tail configurations. A male Betta splendens can be easily recognised by his long and flowing fins. The females are without such extravagances, and they are also considerably smaller than the males – 1.5 inches compared to the 3-4 inches of the male.

When you buy a Betta you should choose an individual that is energetic and have an open finnage. A male Betta with clamped fins is weak, ill or suffering from stress. Since a Betta seldom becomes older than 2 years it is unadvisable to buy a large Betta. A large Betta is usually an old Betta, and will not live for very long in your aquarium. Also take a closer look at the skin and fins of all the fishes in the Betta aquarium. Bettas are sensitive to external parasite infestations, and many Bettas suffer from ichthyophthiriaisis (ich) and oodiniumiasis (velvet). Do not buy Betta from an aquarium where one or more fishes show signs of illness, since the Betta might be infested but still not showing any signs. You can find Betta splendens in most ordinary fish stores. Those interested in breeding Betta should however consider buying their Betta directly from a recognized breeder. It will be more expensive, but you can get Betta with a much higher quality and the fish will more suitable for breeding.

Since the Betta is a tropical fish it requires warm waters to do well. Bettas are sometimes sold in unheated vases and tiny bawls, and can freeze to death if the temperature in the room where they are kept is to low. The water temperature should always be in the 80-85 F range. Many Bettas also die from jumping out of their aquarium, so a good cover in recommended. Decorate the aquarium with live plants and avoid any unnecessary surface movements. Bettas prefer a pH of 7 or slightly below, and moderate water hardiness.

betta picture
A white betta male. Copyright www.jjphoto.dk
Since the male Betta is extremely territorial several males should not be kept together in the same aquarium. It is better to keep just one male Betta with several female Bettas; as long as you make sure that the female Bettas have a lot of good hiding spaces in the aquarium. The male Betta is not only aggressive towards other males; he will chase the female Bettas around as well and without suitable hiding places the female Bettas will become much stressed. You can of course keep only female Bettas to avoid this problem, or keep a male Betta with nothing but other species that won’t be harassed by him. Betta is often kept with Swordfish, Platy, Angelfish and small Gourami species.

You can feed your Betta meaty foods (fresh or frozen) or special Betta pellets. Your Betta might need a little help to understand that pellets are actually food. If your Betta refuses to eat pellets for a long time you should offer it other types of food, since Betta fish sometimes starve to death when they fail to understand that they are supposed to eat pellets. Your Betta will more readily accept meaty foods, including brine shrimp, tubificids, daphnia, blood worms and grindal worms. Feed your Betta twice a day or more. If you have other species in the aquarium you might need to lure them away to make sure that your Betta gets any food at all.

Betta Fish

Betta fish is one of several genera in the Family Osphronemidae. The most famous Betta is the Siamese Fighting fish (Betta splendens). The word Betta comes from a local Siamese name for Siamese Fighting fish, “Ikan Bettah”. The contemporary Thai name for this fish is Pla-kad. Since Bettas – especially the Betta splendens – are so popular among aquarists, we have given these fishes their own section here at AC Tropical fish. If you want to read about the other genera in the Family Osphronemidae, you will find a lot of useful information in the Gourami section of the articles library.


Siamese Fighting fish is not the only Betta fish that is well liked by aquarists. The Betta genus contains more than 50 described species. Most of them can be kept in aquariums but it is only a few species that are commonly kept by other aquarists than the true Betta enthusiasts. One of the most frequently kept Betta species aside from the Siamese Fighting fish is Betta imbellis – the Peaceful Betta. The Peaceful Betta is native to Malaysia and can reach a maximum size of 8 centimeters (3 inches). As the name suggests, it is a docile fish compared to the Siamese Fighting fish and the Peaceful Betta can do well in a community aquarium with other tranquil and non-aggressive species. The ideal water temperature is between 24-28º C (75-82° F) and the pH should be kept in the 5.5-7.0 range. Wild Betta imbellis inhabit densely grown waters and you should therefore provide your Betta imbellis with plenty of hiding places by decorating the aquarium with lots of plants. A Betta imbellis without any hiding places will become extremely stressed.


In South East Asia Betta splendens is traditionally kept as a fighting fish. The Bettas kept in Asia as fighting fishes were brown with a tinge of green and their fins were much smaller than the fins that we can see on the aquarium kept Bettas of today. If you keep a Betta fish in order to make the fight other Bettas, you will naturally have no incitements to breed fancy Betta fish with long and flowing fins that can easily be injured. Betta fighting is still popular in many parts of Asia and those Bettas can look very different from the forms that we find in aquariums. Male Betta splendens are highly territorial, and when put together in the same container they will fight until one of them dies. In the wild, a weaker male can always choose to leave the territory before he becomes deadly injured, but this is naturally impossible in a small fish bowl or aquarium.

The Betta fish species were quite unknown among European and American scientists and fish enthusiasts until the early 19th century. The King of Siam at that time was allegedly a huge Betta fan and he loved to attend Betta fights. A doctor named Theodor Cantor was given a Siamese fighting fish, supposedly directly from the King of Siam, when the doctor was working in Siam. He became fascinated by the Betta fishes and studied their behavior for 10 years before he published an article about them. He called his fish Macropodus Pugnax. A few years after the turn of the century, another doctor developed a similar fascination for these interesting fishes. His name was Dr. Tate Regan and he changed the name Macropodus Pugnax to Betta Splendens.

Friday, July 18, 2008

Bettas, Anabantoids, Siamese Fighting Fish.

Other names: Bettas, Anabantoids, Siamese Fighting Fish.

Family: Anabantidae.

Native to: Southeast Asia, Southern Asia, Tropical Africa

Members of this family -- denizens in the wild of oxygen-starved waters, can frequently be seen gulping air at the surface; it is perfectly normal for them to do this, as they possess an extra breathing organ (Labyrinth Organ) for this very purpose.

The more colorful varieties are predatory, so care should be taken in choosing companions for them. The rest are comparatively peaceful, but can be noisy when breeding or when out of the water. Males will know when it is time to breed. He will build a bubblenest with his mouth. Then the male and the female will stay near the bottom of the bubblenest to spawn. The male wraps his body around the female during courtship. The females eggs are released and then the male will release his sperm. The male will then collect the eggs in his mouth and gently wash them. He then proceeds to place the eggs into the bubble nest. the male continues to take on the responsibility of guarding theA common red twintail betta nest, and may even kill the female. Male fish can take on stronger coloration at spawning time; frequently the male has extended anal and dorsal fins.

The Betta, or Siamese fighting fish as it's better known, grows to 3" long and comes in a variety of brilliant colors, our male bettas are more commonly reds, and blues, or red/blue mixes. Sometimes greens, rarely white or black. Males, identifiable by their collection of fancy fins, just don't get on with each other at all, so keep only one male in your tank.

Siamese Fighting Fish


  • Name: Siamese Fighting Fish
  • Scientific Name: Betta Splendens
  • Family: Belontiidae or Osphronemidae - Formerly Anabantidae
  • Origin: Thailand, Cambodia, and South Asia
  • Adult Size: 3" ( 7 cm )
  • Social: Very Agressive. Will kill other males.
  • Lifespan: 2-3 years
  • Tank Level: Top Dweller
  • Minimum Tank size: 1 Gallon
  • Tank Setup: Lots of swimming space, plants, and very low current.
  • Diet: Carnivore - Live foods
  • Care: Easy
  • Breeding: Egg Layer - Bubble nest builder
  • Ideal pH : 6.8 - 7.4
  • Temperature: 75-86 F (24-30 C)
  • Sexing : Males are brighter and have much longer fins.

The Siamese fighting fish is one of the most popular species of tropical aquarium fish. For centuries these fish have been captivated by people for hobby and sport. In Thailand, breeding these fish has become a way of life, and is the focus of many gambling events. These fish are known mainly for their aggresiveness, mainly that towards their own species. Male bettas are extremely territorial, and will kill each other when encountered.

This fish is also the subject of much controversy. Since it is a labyrinth fish it doesnt require much oxygen in its water and can breathe air directly from the surface, its also very slow moving and often prefers to swim in one spot. Because of this it is possible to keep these fish in very small bowls and tanks, some are sold in bowls that are similar to large shot glasses. Many experts view this as cruel and say that no fish should be kept in less than 1 gallon of water, especially since bettas are used to large rice patties in the wild. I myself agree and would like to add that I think the minimum requirements for this fish should be 5 gallons with a filter. I personally believe you will NEVER fully appreciate a betta until you see how healthy, happy, and colorful they are in a proper aquarium.

Bettas are also a tough breed offish to establish in a community. Its agressive behavior can be destructive to some fish, meanwhile its own long fins could prove to be a snack for nippy fish like barbs. Male bettas are extremely territorial and will kill each other on sight. This is how the fish earned their name and betta fighting has become a gambling sport in many places. This is also controversial and is considered by most aquarists, including myself, to be cruel.

In the wild, the fighting fish's diet consists almost solely on live insects. They can be fed regular tropical flake food but must be supplemented with freeze dried bloodworms and occasionly live foods. However the ideal diet for the betta is live and meaty foods. Brine shrimp, Daphnia, plankton, tubifex, glassworms, and beef heart, are good diet options.

The male fighting fish is easily identified by its long and colorful fins. Females however are much duller in color and have significantly shorter fins. Dozens of selectively bred variations of the betta splendens are available including the regular veil tail, the crowntail, the half moon, and the double tail.

Breeding the fighting fish is considered extremely difficult. Males should only be bred with one female at a time and can also be very agressive and hurt the female while breeding. The water temperature should be raised to 30C and should be filtered by a smaller filter to prevent excess water movement. Before breeding the male will construct his bubblenest to place the eggs in, after he will begin chasing the female agressively, which may result in her loosing some scales. Once ready the two will show bright coloration and the mall will wrap himself around the female. Eggs will be fertilized immediately, and after mating, will be placed in the bubblenest and cared for by the male. The female should then be removed as the male will once again become violent. In about 2 days the eggs should hatch and be visable in the nests. For the first 36 hours the fry will feed off their yolksacks and continue to be raised by the male. After 2 days the fry should be free swimming and the male removed to prevent him from eating the fry. They should be then fed a diet of baby brine shrimp and other tiny fry food. Bettas are so agressive they need to be seperated at an early age, providing isolated housing for each fry becomes tedious work and often requires the use of a large barracks system, limiting the breeding of this fish for professional breeders and less for the average hobbyist.

Wednesday, July 16, 2008

Cara penbiakan ikan laga

Ikan cupang adalah ikan hias yang sangat dikenal oleh masyarakat khususnya anak-anak, karena ikan tersebut selain rupanya yang cantik juga dapat merupakan tentera yang menarik bila diadu. Ikan ini juga sering disebut ikan laga dan nama latinnya adalah Betta splendens, termasuk dalam famili Anabantidae (Labirynth Fisher).

Cara Berkembang Biak
Ikan ini berkembang dengan cara bertelur dan telurnya menempel pada substrat seperti akar tanaman, daun-daun atau serabut rapia.

Langkah-langkah yang perlu diketahui :

  1. Pilihlah induk yang baik dan jantan yang cantik dan agresif.
  2. Pisahkan antara induk jantan dan induk betina dan diberi makan yang cukup selama 4 s.d. 5 hari.
  3. Masukkan induk jantan dan induk betina kedalaman tempat pemijahan (toples, aquarium, ember, baskom) yang telah diberi tanaman air (eceng gondok atau serabut rapia dengan kedalaman air ± 25 cm).
  4. Setelah 2-3 hari akan terlihat telur menempel pada daun atau rapia.
  5. Pindahkan yang betina dan beri makan secukupnya.
  6. Selama 2-3 hari anak ikan tersebut tidak diberi makan karena masih ada persediaan kuning telur dalam tubuhnya.
  7. Selama 2-3 hari kemudian anak-anak ikan tersebut perlu diberi makan infosuria selama 3 hari kemudian diberi makan kutu air yang disaring selama 10 hari dan setelah itu dapat diberi kutu air tanpa disaring.
Cara Perawatan
Induk ikan yang diberi makan cukup baik, setelah 2-3 minggu dapat dipindahkan kembali. Anak-anak ikan cupang dapat dijual setelah berumur 2 bulan. Setelah panjang 4 cm, anak-anak ikan dapat diberi makan cacing. Ikan jantan termasuk ikan yang sayang dengan keturunannya, dilihat dari kebiasaannya membuat busa pada substrat setiap akan mulai memijah. Sedangkan ikan betina kurang telaten merawat anaknya bahkan kadang-kadang memangsa anaknya sendiri sehingga harus cepat-cepat dipisahkan setelah bertelur. Untuk mendapatkan ikan jantan yang bentuk dan warnanya indah, biasanya setelah mencapal panjang 4,5 cm dimasukkan kedalam botol (toples, bekas selai, botol kopi, dll) dan diletakkan saling berdekatan satu sama lain agar dapat saling melihat selama ± 2 minggu, agar sirip ikan cupang tersebut mengembang karena saling menantang.Untuk membudidayakan ikan cupang secara besar-besaran, dapat digunakan bak semen ukuran 1,5 x 3 m. Pemijahannya dilakukan dipinggir bak dengan mempergunakan kotak-kotak papan yang bagian depannya diberi saringan kasa plastik. Saringan ini dimaksudkan agar benih ikan dapat keluar dan kotak pemijahan, sedangkan induknya tetap berada di dalam kotak pemijahan. Ukuran kotak pemijahan 15 x cm atau 20 x 20 cm sedangkan cara perawatan sama dengan diatas.

Sumber :
Dinas Peternakan, Perikanan dan Kelautan Provinsi DKI Jakarta
Jl. Gunung Sahari Raya No. 11, Jakarta Pusat

Ikan laga dan hiasan

Menurut kajian yang dilakukan, Malaysia merupakan pengeluar terbesar ikan hiasan dunia Malaysia merupakan antara pengeluar yang menghasilkan ikan Discus,Ikan Emas,Koi,dan Kelisa yang terbaik di dunia...bangga tak?hihih..errmm ok arini aku akan ajar korang camner nak wat breeding atau pembiakan ikan laga atau ikan spilar yang femes pada masa kita kecik2 dulu ni..sekarang pun ikan ni mempunyai peminat mereka yang tersendiri..




pendahuluan
Ikan laga ni sebenarnya mempunyai beberapa varieti atau jenis2 yang berbeza..ia dapat dikenal pasti melalui bentuk ekor nya.ada spesis crown tail,half moon,moon atau jenis yang biasa.yang femes atau harga yang mencecah rm 20 hingga ratus2 sekor biasanya half moon..cantik kalo korang tengok..meleleh air liur.caya arr aku cakap..gambar yang aku tunjuk tu crown tail.ikan laga nie mempunyai bermacam2 warna dan kualitinya juga dinilai dari warna,sama ada sekata ke,seragam ke..gitu arr..aku pun xberape expert..

jantina
cara nak kenal ikan jantan senang ajer..biasernya ikan jantan ekor die panjang.tapi tidak semestinya sebab sekarang nie para penternak dah hasilkan betina yang ekor panjang gak.Jadi masalah arr sket..tapi yg betina ni korang akan dapat kenal pasti melalui abdomen dan juga biji putih di bahagian anusnya..bwh ikan tuh arr..

kematangan
untuk pembiakan korang memerlukan induk yang matang jadi pilihla dengan betul..

jantan
induk jantan yang matang dan bersedia untuk membiak akan membuat buih di permukaan..tuh maknenya dia ngan 'hot' arr tuh.

betina
Bagi yang betina plak,macam biasa arr perut atau abdomen dia akan buncit,dan terdapat biji putih di bahagian anusnya...

Kaedah pembiakan
Bagi kaedah pembiakan,korang kene sediakan yang selesa 1 kaki x 1 kaki x 1 kaki.tapi lagi kecik pun takder masalah..aku cume cakap hak asasi ikan tuh arr.cube korang bayangkan korang baru kahwin dan dapat bilik yg sangat sempit untuk malam pertama.huih..seksa..macam tu jugak ar dengan ikan laga neh..bagi nak bagi tongkat ali atau super power atau orang kampung kt ikan nie letak arr daun ketapang...air die akan jadi berasid dan sesuai untuk pembiakan..die lagi gersang..dan cepat membiak.untuk meransang pembentukan buih oleh jantan,sebaiknya letak arr polistrene atau kiambang untuk mengekalkan buih tuh sebab ikan akan suka buat buih di bawahnya..

sebaiknya korang letak dulu bekas yang ada induk jantan dan induk betina ni sebelah2 di dalam bekas yang berasingan dulu,ye la kan bagi kenal2 dulu,main sms dulu ker..jagi xder arr dieorang wat secara ganas nanti.lagi satu dalam tangki pembiakan letak arr daun atau batu kecik utk jadi pelindung kepada betina,mana la kita tau kan die dapat laki ganas ker..jadi kene arr bagi perlindungan..

selepas jantan buat buih baru arr dimasukkan induk betina..induk jantan dan betina nie sebaiknya dicampurkan atau dikahwinkan di awal pagi..menjelang tengahari ikan nie akan melakukan ritual peneluran..ikan jantan akan menari dengan mengibaskan ekornya,membelit betina dan mengutip telur dan memasukkannya ke dalam buih..benda nie akan berlaku dari setengah jam hinga sejam gitu arr..selepas tu keesokan harinya ceraikanla dieorang..alih yg betina tinggalkan yang jantan sahaja..sebab jantan akan jaga telur dan ditakuti yg betina akan makan telur atau anak..

telur tu akan menetas dalam masa 24jam hingga 36jam bergantung pada suhu semasa..sebaiknya letak di atas kayu atau rak..jangan letak atas simen..sejuk..mati ikan nanti.selepas sehari anak ikan menetas.alih arr jantan plak ke dalam bekas lain.sebab ikan jntan nie da lama tak makan,jadi ia lapar dan ditakuti ia akan makan anak die sendiri(bukan ditakuti,memang ye pun).

Penjagaan anak
anak2 ikan laga perlu diberi makan selepas 3 hari mereka menetas,korang tenok arr perut atau yolk dieorang da kempis baru bagi makan..seeloknya rotifer disamping air hijau sebagai supplemen..kebaikan air hijau ni die akan melindungi badan anak ikan dari penembusan cahaya matahari yang boleh merosakkan mata dan organ anak ikan tersebut.air hijau nie sebenarnya mengandungi phytoplankton bernama chorella secara majoritinya,tapi ada gak banyak species lain yg ada.ia boleh didapati dari air ternakan ikan tilapia,ikan keli.korang perhatikan air dalam kolam ternakan dua spesis ni hijau,tu arr air hijau yang dimaksudkan..ok?

selepas seminggu cuba ar dapatkan moina atau artemia untuk peringkat pemakanan seterusnya..ikan laga nie akan makan apa sahaja yang muat dengan mulutnye..satu lagi tips ikan laga nie akan lagi cantik dan cepat membesar jika diberi makanan hidup mcm jentik2 ataupun frozen blood worm...cube arr yerkk!!

Sunday, July 13, 2008

Ikan Laga

Menurut kajian yang dilakukan, Malaysia merupakan pengeluar terbesar ikan hiasan dunia Malaysia merupakan antara pengeluar yang menghasilkan ikan Discus,Ikan Emas,Koi,dan Kelisa yang terbaik di dunia...bangga tak?hihih..errmm ok arini aku akan ajar korang camner nak wat breeding atau pembiakan ikan laga atau ikan spilar yang femes pada masa kita kecik2 dulu ni..sekarang pun ikan ni mempunyai peminat mereka yang tersendiri..

pendahuluan
Ikan laga ni sebenarnya mempunyai beberapa varieti atau jenis2 yang berbeza..ia dapat dikenal pasti melalui bentuk ekor nya.ada spesis crown tail,half moon,moon atau jenis yang biasa.yang femes atau harga yang mencecah rm 20 hingga ratus2 sekor biasanya half moon..cantik kalo korang tengok..meleleh air liur.caya arr aku cakap..gambar yang aku tunjuk tu crown tail.ikan laga nie mempunyai bermacam2 warna dan kualitinya juga dinilai dari warna,sama ada sekata ke,seragam ke..gitu arr..aku pun xberape expert..

jantina
cara nak kenal ikan jantan senang ajer..biasernya ikan jantan ekor die panjang.tapi tidak semestinya sebab sekarang nie para penternak dah hasilkan betina yang ekor panjang gak.Jadi masalah arr sket..tapi yg betina ni korang akan dapat kenal pasti melalui abdomen dan juga biji putih di bahagian anusnya..bwh ikan tuh arr..

kematangan
untuk pembiakan korang memerlukan induk yang matang jadi pilihla dengan betul..

jantan
induk jantan yang matang dan bersedia untuk membiak akan membuat buih di permukaan..tuh maknenya dia ngan 'hot' arr tuh.

betina
Bagi yang betina plak,macam biasa arr perut atau abdomen dia akan buncit,dan terdapat biji putih di bahagian anusnya...

Kaedah pembiakan
Bagi kaedah pembiakan,korang kene sediakan yang selesa 1 kaki x 1 kaki x 1 kaki.tapi lagi kecik pun takder masalah..aku cume cakap hak asasi ikan tuh arr.cube korang bayangkan korang baru kahwin dan dapat bilik yg sangat sempit untuk malam pertama.huih..seksa..macam tu jugak ar dengan ikan laga neh..bagi nak bagi tongkat ali atau super power atau orang kampung kt ikan nie letak arr daun ketapang...air die akan jadi berasid dan sesuai untuk pembiakan..die lagi gersang..dan cepat membiak.untuk meransang pembentukan buih oleh jantan,sebaiknya letak arr polistrene atau kiambang untuk mengekalkan buih tuh sebab ikan akan suka buat buih di bawahnya..

sebaiknya korang letak dulu bekas yang ada induk jantan dan induk betina ni sebelah2 di dalam bekas yang berasingan dulu,ye la kan bagi kenal2 dulu,main sms dulu ker..jagi xder arr dieorang wat secara ganas nanti.lagi satu dalam tangki pembiakan letak arr daun atau batu kecik utk jadi pelindung kepada betina,mana la kita tau kan die dapat laki ganas ker..jadi kene arr bagi perlindungan..

selepas jantan buat buih baru arr dimasukkan induk betina..induk jantan dan betina nie sebaiknya dicampurkan atau dikahwinkan di awal pagi..menjelang tengahari ikan nie akan melakukan ritual peneluran..ikan jantan akan menari dengan mengibaskan ekornya,membelit betina dan mengutip telur dan memasukkannya ke dalam buih..benda nie akan berlaku dari setengah jam hinga sejam gitu arr..selepas tu keesokan harinya ceraikanla dieorang..alih yg betina tinggalkan yang jantan sahaja..sebab jantan akan jaga telur dan ditakuti yg betina akan makan telur atau anak..

telur tu akan menetas dalam masa 24jam hingga 36jam bergantung pada suhu semasa..sebaiknya letak di atas kayu atau rak..jangan letak atas simen..sejuk..mati ikan nanti.selepas sehari anak ikan menetas.alih arr jantan plak ke dalam bekas lain.sebab ikan jntan nie da lama tak makan,jadi ia lapar dan ditakuti ia akan makan anak die sendiri(bukan ditakuti,memang ye pun).

Penjagaan anak
anak2 ikan laga perlu diberi makan selepas 3 hari mereka menetas,korang tenok arr perut atau yolk dieorang da kempis baru bagi makan..seeloknya rotifer disamping air hijau sebagai supplemen..kebaikan air hijau ni die akan melindungi badan anak ikan dari penembusan cahaya matahari yang boleh merosakkan mata dan organ anak ikan tersebut.air hijau nie sebenarnya mengandungi phytoplankton bernama chorella secara majoritinya,tapi ada gak banyak species lain yg ada.ia boleh didapati dari air ternakan ikan tilapia,ikan keli.korang perhatikan air dalam kolam ternakan dua spesis ni hijau,tu arr air hijau yang dimaksudkan..ok?

selepas seminggu cuba ar dapatkan moina atau artemia untuk peringkat pemakanan seterusnya..ikan laga nie akan makan apa sahaja yang muat dengan mulutnye..satu lagi tips ikan laga nie akan lagi cantik dan cepat membesar jika diberi makanan hidup mcm jentik2 ataupun frozen blood worm...cube arr yerkk!!

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